Munich Agreement 1938 Summary


The agreement was widely welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified “to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.” But the same is true for Alsace-Lorraine, unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression. Gallup Polls, in Britain, France and the United States, said the majority of the population supported the agreement. In 1939, Czechoslovakian President Bene√© was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. [52] On 5 October, he resigned as President of Czechoslovakia because he realized that the fall of Czechoslovakia was inevitable. After the outbreak of World War II, he formed a Czechoslovakian government in exile in London. On 6 December 1938, The French Foreign Minister, Mr. Bonnet, and the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, signed the Franco-German non-aggression pact in Paris. [80] [82] In September 1938, he turned to the three million Germans who lived in part of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland. The Sudeten Germans began to protest and provoke violence by the Czech police. Hitler claimed that 300 Sudeten Germans had been killed.

This was not really the case, but Hitler used it as a pretext to place German troops along the Czech border. Later, at the meeting, a deception was agreed in advance to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s accomplices entered the room to inform Hitler of other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, and Hitler then shouted: “I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be destroyed.¬†[32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the demands of the Allies. [32] Later that evening, Hitler was concerned that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain, and he called Chamberlain`s hotel suite to say that he would only accept the annexation of Sudetenland without plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Chechens from the majority regions of Germany by 8 p.m. on September 26. After being pushed by Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to issue the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that it was a concession he wanted to make to the Prime Minister as a “gift”, out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain was prepared to back down a little from his previous position. [37] Hitler added that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial rights over Czechoslovakia and would enter into a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] On 22 September Chamberlain, who wanted to go to Bad Godesberg for further conversations just before his plane to Germany, told the press who met him there that “my goal is peace in Europe, I am sure that this journey is the way to that peace.” [32] Chamberlain came to Cologne, where he received a big reception with a German band that played “God Save the King” and Germans who offered flowers and gifts to Chamberlain. [32] Chamberlain had calculated that full acceptance of the German annexation of all Sudetenland without reduction would force Hitler to accept the agreement. [32] When Hitler heard, he replied, “Does this mean that the Allies have accepted the transfer of the Sudetenland to Germany?”, Chamberlain replied “Exactly,” to which Hitler replied by shaking his head, saying that the Allies` offer was insufficient.

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